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Table 1 Modifications of T-cell and B-cell systems in older humans

From: Immunosenescence, inflammation and Alzheimer’s disease

T cells and B cells or B-cell products Lymphocyte subpopulations Change Reference
CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ Total T cells, T helper cells, Decrease [9]
(percentage and absolute number) cytotoxic T lymphocytes   [14]
CD3+CD45RA+CD62L+ Naïve T cells Decrease [10]
(percentage)    [11]
    [12]
    [13]
CD8+CD28- Effector T cells Increase [10]
(percentage)    [11]
    [12]
    [13]
CD19+ Total B cells Decrease [24]
(percentage and absolute number)    [25]
    [16]
    [17]
    [18]
CD19+CD5+ B1 cells Decrease [15]
(percentage and absolute number)    
CD19+IgD+CD27 Naïve B cells Decrease [19]
(percentage)    
CD19+IgD-CD27 Double Negative B cells Increase [19]
(percentage)    [24]
    [20]
IgG, IgA   Increase [21]
   No change [22]
IgD, IgM   Decrease [21]
IgE   No change [21]
(after specific immunization)    [22]
   Decrease [23]
Autoantibodies   Increase [27]
    [26]