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Table 3 Cytokines, growth factors, chemokines and chemokine receptors on Alzheimer’s disease patients after in vitro stimulation

From: Immunosenescence, inflammation and Alzheimer’s disease

  Stimulated vs. unstimulated AD patients Reference
Cytokines   
 IL-1β,IL-6,TNF-α,IL-1ra Increase [63]
 IFN-γ Increase [63]
   [82]
 IL-10 Decrease [77]
  Increase [63]
Growth factors   
 GM-CSF,G-CSF Increase [63]
Chemokines   
 Eotaxin,MIP-1β Increase [63]
 RANTES Increase [89]
 MIP-1α No change [63]
Chemokine receptors   
 CCR2 and CCR5 on T cells Increase [63]
 CR5on B cells Increase [63]
  1. AD, Alzheimer’s disease; G-CSF, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; GM-CSF, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor; IL-1ra, IL-1 receptor antagonist; MIP, macrophage inflammatory protein.